RHG – Killed in Action – 28 September 1917

After their success in the Battle of Menin Road on 20th/21st September, the 28th Battalion had been relieved and retired behind the lines to bivouacs between Reninghelst and Poperinghe. The platoons were reorganised and training resumed. They were reunited with their kit, allowed the use of the baths at Poperinghe on 26th September, and allowed local leave to Reninghelst and Poperinghe. But enemy planes were active after dark with bombing raids on Poperinghe and the surrounding camps.

On the night of 28th September – a hundred years ago today – a low flying enemy airplane dropped a bomb on the 28th Battalion’s camp, exploding in the area of the Battalion Headquarters, with devastating results.

Reg was killed along with:

Sergeant William McIntosh, originally from Moray in Scotland, and a baker from Horseman in WA,

Private Leonard Travers  a farmer from Australian, WA who is recorded as having been wounded on 20th September.

Private Arthur Verrall, a labourer from Maddington, WA, and originally from Red Hill, Surrey in England.

Lt Colonel G.A.Read, commanding officer of the 28th Battalion was seriously wounded and was invalided back to Australia in May 1918, but died on 29 June 1919.

Also wounded were:

Major Herbert Frederick Darling DSO, second in command of the battalion, a veteran of the Boer War, who won the DSO and Queens Medal with 4 clasps and was wounded with the 1st West Australian Mounted Infantry in 1900-1902

Major Arnold Brown, survived the war and became Lieutenant Colonel A Brown DSO OBE MC . Brown returned from his wounding to the Western Front and served as temporary commanding officer of the 28th Battalion on occasions. He demobilised after return to Australian but joined up again in October 1939, and served as commanding officer of the 2/1st Pioneer Battalion in the defence of Tobruk in 1941 and then the 36th Battalion

Lieutenant James Combe Birt (he subsequently won the MC but was killed in action 3 October 1918)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lieutenant Clifton Ronald Gillett (whose leg was amputated)

Lieutenant CC Flower, who had been wounded with Reg a year before at the battle of Gueudecourt.  Cyril Cecil Flower. He was a clerk from Perth and had been promoted from Sergeant to Second Lieutenant on 16 August 1916, after Pozières. This time he was wounded severely,  but survived, returning to WA in May 1918. He is recorded as Captain CC Flower as a contributor to Herbet Collet’s History of the 28th AIF in 1922

Seven other ranks were also wounded but unfortunately their names are not recorded.

Captain Jack Roydhouse (mentioned in a previous post) was the only senior officer left in the battalion, until the arrival of Lt Colonel R Travers of the 26th Battalion, who assumed temporary command of the 28th.

The Official History records “On the night of Sept. 28 at Reninghelst a bomb dropped beside the tents of 28th Bn. H.Q., killed Captain Gill and three others, and wounded Col. Read, Major A. Brown, Major H. F. Darling (Geraldton, W. Aust., and Northern Rhodesia), and ten other officers and men.

Lieutenant John Thomas Blair wrote:
“Quite a gloom was cast over the battalion by the death of Captain Reg Gill, who was one of the most popular officers the battalion had. He left Australia with the 7th28th and joined the battalion just before it came to France. he had been through most of the stunts, by his good work gaining the M.C. and now was killed in his tent while behind the lines.”

And one of the men in Reg’s company, Lance-Corporal Euliseus St. Ives Bilston, wrote a poem entitled ‘Death of Captain R. Gill, MC: The Idol of the 28th Battalion Boys’ and sent it to Reg’s father.

 Reg and the others who died in the blast that night are all buried in the nearby Lijssenthoek Military Cemetery, along with many other comrades of the 28th Battalion who fell during the Third Battle of Ypres in September to November 1917.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reg’s death was announced in the local papers in WA almost a month later:

On Tuesday at private cable, was received at Fremantle, confirming the news of the death of Captain R. Gill, M.C. According to this message, Captain Gill was killed instantaneously on September 28. The deceased, who was extremely popular at Fremantle, enlisted about two yeas ago, and he was the first Australian officer to gain the coveted Military Cross. He was formerly an officer on one of the steamers trading between Fremantle and Singapore.
Western Mail, 26 October 1917

Reg’s death was commemorated by his wife, Laura, each year on the anniversary of his death in the local newspaper. And a tree was planted by Laura in 1919 in the memorial avenue in King’s Park botanical gardens in Perth.

Reg is commemorated on the Australian War Memorial in Canberra, the village war memorial in Lurgashall, West Sussex where his father and step mother were living at the time, and the war memorial in Fremantle:

 

The 28th Battalion in the Battle of Menin Road – 20 September 1917

After almost four months of constant training the 28th Battalion were finally in action once more in the Battle of Menin Road which started on 20 September 1917. The objective was to take and hold the high ground of the ridge that crossed the Menin Road to the south east of Ypres. The Australian 1st and 2nd Divisions would attack side by side from Westhoek Ridge towards Polygon Wood – see below map (click to enlarge). But due to the bombardments in preparation for the attack, very little if anything remained of the original woods. “Westhoek, on the second spur, was marked only by the line of pillboxes which the Germans had built in its ruins. On the main ridge the woods had been shredded to stubble, and the slight depressions of the Polygon Wood plateau on the crest, as well as the hollows on either side, had been turned into bog.” (Official History, p 739)

A desolate scene on Westhoek Ridge, in the Ypres sector, looking towards Glencorse Wood and Nonne Bosschen. The view includes Polygon Wood on the extreme left and Clapham Junction on the extreme right and shows the state of the area which the 1st Division attacked over on 20 September 1917, twenty four hours prior to the taking of the photograph.

Map showing the objectives for the three waves of attack for the Australian Divisions – the red line was the objective for the first wave, the blue line for the second wave, and the green line the final objective for the third wave. The pill-boxes known as Anzac, Iron Cross Redoubt and Albert Redoubt are highlighted.

The tactics were different from before with three waves of successive attacks deploying the new ‘bite and hold’ tactics – the first battalion in the first wave to take their objective and hold it, whilst the second battalion who had been lying in wait behind them leapfrogged their position, took their objective and held it, whilst a third battalion leapfrogged the second position on their way to take the third and final objective. The battalions being leapfrogged would then act as reserves for the next battalion. The artillery would provide a creeping barrage but the difference being that the barrage would be much deeper than before, move on and then come back, for each successive wave of the attack, and then continue as a standing barrage just in front of the final objective for several hours to deal with the expected counter attacks from the enemy. The 28th Battalion would form the third and last wave of the attack in their allocated sector. The force in the earlier waves might be lighter, and the advance there deeper and quicker, than in the later stages. The last stage must be the shortest and slowest, and carried out by the strongest force, which must be prepared to meet immediate counter-attack.

The tactics demanded careful and precise planning. But after months of preparation, with refreshed troops, the attack went according to plan.

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A dump of 18 pounder shell cases at Birr Cross Roads, in the Ypres Sector, where positions were occupied by the 2nd Divisional Artillery, 20 September 1917

It helped that the successive objectives were each relatively modest distances – This was another ‘new’ tactic to “preserve physical freshness and good organisation”. And the weather was favourable – the threatened rain, which could have seen a recurrence of the hellish mud at Gueudecourt, held off. Drier weather made it much easier for the attackers to move vast amounts of supplies forward and for the infantry to move quickly to the next objective. There was a ground fog around dawn, which helped conceal the Australian infantry during the attack, before clearing up later in the morning to expose German troop movements to observation and attack.

Another difference to previous battles was that the Germans held no definite, readily distinguishable trench lines. Instead the front line consisted of scattered reinforced posts (‘pill-boxes’), with machine-guns distributed chequer-wise over a wide area behind it.  The pill-boxes gave excellent protection to the machine gunners inside who could shelter from the shell fire and, as the barrage eased, quickly emerge to mount the machine guns against the attacking infantry. The real line of resistance lay in rear of all this, with supports, reserves, and more machine-guns distributed in great depth.

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A pillbox known as Anzac, captured by the 2nd Australian Division, on 20 September 1917, and on which they hoisted an Australian flag

The tactics to overcome the pill-boxes had been practiced by the Australians. While a section fired at the loopholes to deny observation to the occupiers, another section would creep around the flanks to fling bombs (grenades) through the apertures and entrance door at the rear. It was also crucial for the attacking troops to closely follow the creeping barrage and not to allow the German machine gunners time to emerge from the pill-boxes to set up the machine guns.

Unidentified soldiers with a British male Mark IV tank, temporarily out of action, near Westhoek Ridge in September 1917. (From the collection of 704 Driver Ernest Charles Barnes who served with the 1st Field Artillery Brigade, 21st Howitzer Brigade and 2nd Field Artillery Brigade.)

Scattered in the zone of attack were the remains of a number of tanks which had been wrecked in earlier actions. Though the Australians had decided to attack without tank support, two tanks were fitted out as wireless stations to be placed in Glencourse Wood.

 

 

Battle_of_Menin_Road-_Australian_situation_map_(autocoloured)

Detailed map showing the zone of attach of the Australian Divisions – the 28th Bn are to the right hand side of the 2nd Division’s zone – shown in green starting at the rear (far left), and ending at the final objective, the green line (far right)

The attack was a great success along its entire front. Zero hour for the attack was 5.40am when the heavy barrage opened. By 6.30am the 25th Battalion had taken its objective of the Red Line, running along a sunken road with its northern edge at Glencourse Wood and its southern edge at Hannebeke Swamp in None Bosschen. Small pockets of resistance were encountered, particularly from the zealous German machine gunners, who almost inevitably fought to the death, although most of the dazed enemy garrison surrendered. At 7am the 27th Battalion leap-frogged the 25th and by 7.30am had taken their objective of the Blue Line, extending from Iron Cross Redoubt to Polygon Wood. The majority of the enemy surrendered with token resistance. At 8.10am the 28th moved forward from its position at Westhoek Ridge to take up its place just behind the artillery barrage in front of the Blue Line (see map above).

The 28th Battalion’s attack commenced with the re-opening of the barrage at 9.53am, and then the four companies A, B, C and D spread out in order from left to right, each composed of four waves moving steadily forward behind the creeping barrage in good order. German artillery and machine gun fire caused many casualties. When all the officers of D Company became casualties, Sergeant Albert.W. Clark took command of the Company and was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. This N.C.O. led his platoon with great dash, and set a splendid example to all. When all his company officers had become casualties, he took command of his company, and handled his men in grand style under very trying circumstances. His conduct was most gallant and inspiring.

A platoon from A company moved too far to the left during the advance and was corrected by Corporal Reuben Arnold, who was awarded the Military Medal, Arnold, a farm hand from Perth, WA was killed barely a month later, of gas poisioning in the Battle of Passchendaele .

The Green Line objective was quickly reached in just a few minutes. The enemy troops offered token resistance and their positions were quickly cleared, with prisoners escorted back to the support lines. The success signal of two green Very lights (flares) fired in quick succession, was made at 10am. “The battle of September 20th (Menin Road), like those that succeeded it, is easily described in as much as it went almost precisely in accordance with plan.” (Official History, p. 761)

The 28th then took immediate action to consolidate the position by furiously digging a trench line under constant enemy shell fire and attack from enemy airplanes. The 28th moved the line forward in places, beyond the Green Line, a few yards down the slope of the ridge out of the line of the enemy barrage and commenced consolidation. Lance Corporal Ernest Jack Johnson, formerly a clerk from East Perth, WA, led his men forward and selected posts for a motley collection of 17th and 28th Battalion men. Johnson was wounded by shrapnel, but refused to be evacuated until his men were deployed. He was awarded the Distinguished Conduct MedalFor conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. When his officers had become casualties, he took charge of two platoons of his battalion and a number of men of another battalion, showing excellent judgment in selecting positions and consolidating. The position was rendered safe by the good dispositions which he made for its defence and by his personal example and leadership. Though wounded, he carried on until the battalion was relieved, displaying an utter disregard for personal safety.’.

studio portrait of George Meysey Hammond taken before his departure for Egypt, inscribed “Australia will be there”

At 1.48, as no counter-attack appeared to be imminent anywhere, the barrage came to an end on the Anzac front after having run its course for eight hours and eight minutes. Carrying parties from the 26th battalion in support brought up coils of barbed wire which was strung out in front of the new front line. The 28th Battalion Intelligence Officer, Lieutenant George Meysey Hammond (see previous post on the Battle of Guedecourt), patrolled Polygon Wood with a revolver clutched in his one good hand and his pockets stuffed with Mills bombs (grenades). Hammond attacked an enemy party and returned with twenty German prisoners, for which he was awarded the Military Cross ‘For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in the attack on 20/9/17 at Westhoek. Lieut. Hammond went forward with the Advanced Brigade party as Intelligence Officer. he secured much valuable matter. Although only have the use of one arm, he captured 20 prisoners by himself. His example to the men was wonderful. He was fearless in the extreme, and cheered everyone on.  He volunteered for any dangerous work and made a number of reconnaissance of the front line, securing much valuable information.

By 4pm a continuous trench some 5 to 6 feet deep had been dug, contact had been made with the 17th battalion on their left and the 9th Battalion on their right, weapons had been cleaned and the troops prepared for the inevitable counter attacks. The German artillery and snipers constantly inflicted casualties throughout the day.  Corporal Alfred Frederick Hitchcock crawled out in front of the Battalion’s line and waited until a sniper fired another shot, thus revealing his position. Hitchcock promptly killed the sniper and returned to the trench and was later awarded the Military Medal.

Several times during the afternoon and evening, groups of enemy troops launched repeated desperate counter-attacks but were kept back by the Australian artillery fire. A number of ‘drop-shorts’ by the Australian artillery caused casualties in the battalion’s ranks.  A platoon post under the command of Corporal Ernest Reedy Walsh was attacked by an enemy bombing party, but Walsh dispersed the attack, and was awarded the Military Medal.

Enemy barrages of the front line continued into the night but as the intensity decreased patrols were sent out on both flanks into Polygon Wood and Albania Wood. At dawn (4.30 a.m.) on the 21st a great barrage, machine-gun fire and all, came down again as prearranged, and swept forward for 2,000 yards.  Sporadic shelling, artillery duels and German aircraft continued to harass the Australians throughout the day – with the inevitable continuous casualties. The Battalion was relieved by the 23rd Battalion at around 1am on 22nd September.

On 23rd September the 28th Battalion moved further back to bivouacs near Reninghelst, where they consolidated and hot baths were organised.The Battalion was well satisfied with its success, although the casualties at first count numbered 51 killed and 189 wounded.

So ended, with complete success, the first step in Haig’s trial of true step-by-step tactics. The British Army did this day precisely what it was intended to do, and did it even more cleanly than at Messines.” However “Lord Bertie, British Ambassador in Paris, noted in his diary: “ We have done a good offensive which is much appreciated. But will it lead to anything really important ?” (Official History) 

Sources:
Henry K. Kahan, The 28th Battalion Australian Imperial Force : a record of war service, pp 40-41
Neville Browning, The Blue & White Diamond : the History of the 28th Battalion 1915-1919, pp 226-233
CEW Bean, The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume IV – The Australian Imperial Force in France, 1917 (11th edition, 1941), Chapter XVIII – Step by Step. (1) The Menin Road, pp 735 – 790

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A scene on the Menin Road near Hooge, looking towards Birr Cross Roads, during the battle on 20 September 1917. The wounded on the stretchers are waiting to be taken to the clearing stations;

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Members of the 24th Battalion resting in a mine crater, just behind Albert Redoubt, during the battle of 20 September 1917

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Captured German trenches strewn with dead after the battle of 20 September 1917.

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A scene at Garter Point. Two unidentified soldiers walk toward a pillbox, captured some days earlier by the Australian 2nd Division. It commanded an excellent view over the surrounding country including Tokio Ridge (mid background, to the right of the tree).

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A copy of a colour printed post card of 1917, titled; “The Battle of Polygon Wood From Original Drawing by A. Pearse, War Artist.” The following description was printed on the reverse of the card; “One of the most inspiring and historic events during the Battle of Polygon Wood (Belgium), was the planting of the Australian Flag on Anzac Redoubt (German Pill-box), at 7.15 a.m., on September 20th, 1917, by Lieutenant A V L Hull, 18th Battalion. He was killed in action three weeks later.” This postcard was produced for sale and all profits were directed to the Australian Comforts Funds.

RHG’s final letter – 8 September 1917

                                            “C” Coy

September 8th 1917.               28th Btn A.I.F.

 

Dearest Mum & Dad.

                                    I haven’t heard from
you for a little while, the last letter I wrote
you was 9 days ago[1] about the motor cycle I
want to buy, so I might hear any day now
from you. This is the last letter I shall be able
to write you for some days as we are going
into a big stunt in a day or two and I am
leading my Company into it[2]. I pray to God I
shall do well, no one knows what one will do
until it comes to the actual thing, but you may
be sure I shall do my best whatever comes, &
hope to be going strong at the end of it, perhaps
you will be able to guess where it is[3]. I may get
a Blighty wound if I am lucky and then
I shall be able to see you all again. Will
send you a Field Post card as often as possible,
although as I hear there are no trenches left
and they are all living in shell holes it
will upset the postal arrangements somewhat.
Write me as often as you can, I often think
of the dear old home and wish this awful
War was well over so that the world could
live at peace again. From the papers I see
the swine have been having extensive bombing
raids again over England. I can’t think
what the Authorities at home are dreaming
about not to try and cope with them better.
I had a letter from Aunty Maud today
they seem very well & happy & have had
both Theo & Baish stopping with them, they
are very lucky having them at home so often,
Baish can’t have seen very much of the war
I should think[4]. How are you both keeping,
well I hope, as for me, I am “in the pink”,
have never felt better. We had a cinema picture
taken of our battalion to-day, we were specially
picked out from the Division as being the
best battalion, the photographer was Capt Hurley
who was photographer to the Scott & Mawson
Antarctic Expeditions, so is the best of his class[5].
Good bye dears for the present, I may be
seeing you again shortly, Believe me

            Ever your affectionate son.

                                                Reg.

Love to everybody.

(IWM: Documents.14424)

 

[1] See here for Reg’s previous letter. It was only 7 days previously, not 9, which may indicate Reg’s state of mind at the time, anticipating the coming battle.

[2] the 28th were soon to engage in the Battle of Menin Road and had been training hard since June for this, adopting new techniques.

Reg says he will be leading his company. He had only just expressed his disappointment, in his letter a week before to Laura, at being relegated to second in command due to the return to the Battalion of officers more senior to him. I don’t know what occurred in the previous week to lead to this change.

[3] RHG has underlined individual letters in the text to spell the name of the planned offensive – P O L Y G O N  W O O D.

1917.09.08 - RHG letter to Mum & Dad - underlined P and O      1917.09.08 - RHG letter to Mum & Dad - underlined L        1917.09.08 - RHG letter to Mum & Dad - underlined Y         1917.09.08 - RHG letter to Mum & Dad - underlined G, O and N

It seems the 28th Battalion’s zone of attack for the Battle of Menin Road was outside the northern border of Polygon Wood itself.

[4] Aunt Maud was the wife of Reg’s Uncle Cliff, G.C.Bower, Their
two sons Theo and Baish were Capt. Theodore Clifford Bower MC serving in the 2nd Battalion the Honourable Artillery Regiment (2 HAC) and Lieutenant Alfred George Bower with the London Regiment (Royal Fusiliers) – see here for the previous post with details of the Bower family.

[2] Captain James Francis (Frank) Hurley, OBE, the official photographer for the AIF Mentions visiting the “28th Brigade” [sic] in his diary:

“8th September – Saturday
All day with the 28th Brigade, 2nd division, near Renescue. Col. Reid gave me every assistance in his power and arranged routine drill for the camera and cine. The men are practically all W. Australians, – their training reflects credit on their commanding officer, – the men are well disciplined, their evolutions resembling a great machine. they performed exercises with the bayonet, Physical drill, Lewis gun exercise and Signal Exercise etc. with a perfectness only attained by continued training and rigid discipline. the men are in fine fettle and will give a good account of themselves in the very near future. Wintry conditions are beginning. The leaves are turning Autumn tints and the atmosphere is assuming typical fogginess of winter. The Hay is being stacked and the ground refilled. The country looks beautiful.”

(source: NLA)

A number of these photos survive and are available online, as well as the cine film.

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408406659962286238248

See here for the film: https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C188273

RHG – Letter to his step-mother, 1 September 1917

 

“C” Coy

                                    28th Battalion

1st September 1917                A.I.F.

 

Dearest Mum

                        Thanks very much indeed
for your letter & the [?] magazine which
I got to-day. I have been up to my eyes in
work lately, we are all tightened & polished
up ready for the fray, but so far we have
had nothing allotted to us, but expect big things
very shortly. There are all sorts of wild
rumours flying about over here, re the termination
etc, but I’m afraid it is too good to be true,
[?] time will tell.[1] Am writing to Theo
very soon, he seems awfully busy one way
& another, but is getting jolly well paid for
it by all accounts. [2] I was awfully pleased to
get all those letters from Laura at last, mails
for the month all at once, she seems O.K. from
her letters, she didn’t know what to make of the
Flying Corps stunt but seems quite worrying
about it, I had told her all about it in my
letters, (so don’t you worry Mum dear) but
evidently at that time she had not my letter
Saying it was all off & that I was back in
France once more.[3]

I have definitely decided to purchase a
James 4 ¼ H.P. motor bike an sell dear old
‘Jane’[4]. I wonder if dad could manage to
arrange the sale for me, I should like if
possible to get £30/./. for her (minus the speedometer)
as I really think she is worth that amount.

I am saving up [?] & already have about
£30/./. in my pay book! Strange to say. If Dad
could manage to get £30/./., & my £30 added
(the bike costs £69/10/.) I should soon be able to
buy one, and he could ride it about for me
until I could get home, they are magnificent
machines. Will you ask him to write me on
the subject. I enclose a letter I received from
the James people. We are all having a tremendous
lot of rain here & I hear they have had
disastrous floods in dear old Blighty, lots
of crops ruined. Will you please enclose a
registered envelope in your next letter & I will
at once post Dad the 100 francs he so kindly
says is remaining to complete the purchase of
‘Jane’ of happy memories. Dearest love to you both
            Ever your affectionate son.

                                                            Reg.

My moustache is again in a flowing condition[5]

IWM: Documents.14424

[1] It was not to be. “The Third Battle of Ypres was the major British offensive in Flanders in 1917. It was planned to break through the strongly fortified and in-depth German defences enclosing the Ypres salient, a protruding bulge in the British front line, with the intention of sweeping through to the German submarine bases on the Belgian coast. The battle comprised of a series of limited and costly offensives, often undertaken in the most difficult of waterlogged conditions – a consequence of frequent periods of rain and the destruction of the Flanders’ lowlands drainage systems by intense artillery bombardment. As the opportunity for breakthrough receded, Haig still saw virtue in maintaining the offensives, hoping in the process to drain German manpower through attrition.” AWM

[2] Theo, Reg’s brother GT Gill was currently an instructor at the Young Officers’ School at Sabathu in the Simla Hills 

[3] Flying Corps – no other information survives but maybe Reg had applied to join the Australian Flying Corps whilst recovering from his wounds in England earlier in 1917, just as his mate from Perth and former member of the 28th battalion, Maj Roy Philipps, MC & Bar, DFC, had done after recovering from his own wounding at Guedecourt and return to service in March 2017. If so, it seems that Reg’s step-mother may be concerned that she has accidentally revealed this information to Reg’s wife Laura. In any event, it seems that any such application was turned down. The difference with Roy Philipps is that his leg was partially paralysed and he was incapacitated from any further infantry service.

[4] Jane, Reg’s motorcycle.

[5] No photos survive of Reg’s ‘flowing’ moustache!

RHG – review of the 2nd Division by Sir Douglas Haig, 30 Aug 1917

Reg’s next letter home to Laura on 30 August 1917 is the only other surviving letter in Reg’s file at the Australian War Memorial (Ref: 1DRL/0314).

Flanders                         “C” Coy
30.8.17

 

Dearest Kiddie,

As promised I am beginning
another letter to you in answer to some of
the six I received from you in a heap.

We are still in the same old position[1] and have
been here for quite a long time but expect
we shall very shortly be moving forward into
the scrap again. To-day the whole 2nd Division
was reviewed by Sir Douglas Haig and
we marched past him after, the 28th Btn
was especially mentioned & praised & our
Divisional Commander told us that the
28th Btn was by far the best in the Division
for smartness & appearance, which as you
may imagine has really bucked us up,
all our tails are well up in the air now.[2]

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Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, Commander in Chief, reviewing the 2nd Australian Division. Field Marshal Haig (left); Major General Neville Maskeline Smyth VC, Commanding the 2nd Australian Division (extreme right). Marching past is the 17th Battalion.

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Campagne, France. The 2nd Australian Division formed up en masse for inspection by Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. It was an impressive sight which elicited favourable comments from the Field Marshal.

This is quite nice paper, I got the block
in St. Omer, it is rather large though! My
favourite paper is small! I have the pip
to write properly, am fed up with everything,
sometimes one gets quite despairing of the
War ever ending, things seem so hopeless, I
don’t think it ever will be won by force
of arms, the economical position in Germany
will eventually put an end to it, war is too
mechanical these days, if only they would
stop artillery & gas & burning oil flames etc
and let us finish up in the good old style
with the bayonet, it wouldn’t take long.

I see you contemplate changing round things
in the house[3]. I’m sure whatever you do will
be very nice and should imagine you would be
quite competent to do without any help from
W.J.   Fancy Maggie Young getting married, I
reckon she is pretty lucky, in these hard
times. I am very nearly 35 by now, shall be
in a very few days and am getting as grey
as a badger, I wonder if you will remember
my birthday in your next letter, if you do
I’ll bet you are the only one.[4] The Mater is
very good in writing me every week and
often sends me vegetables from their garden
etc. The garden at Malt House is beautiful
and it is really all their own hard work,
it is quite true, they are both always working
hard at it, my visit came in handy
when I was stopping there! I couldn’t dig
in any case I have had enough digging
in France to last me all my lifetime
though most of that digging has been done
at mighty high pressure[5]. The new bicycle
I’m thinking of getting is a 4 ¼ H.P. model
capable of taking a side car, so I could take
you out. I wonder if you would go with me.[6]
What a damnable shame docking Rs £15/./.
for blankets. I will remember the argument
we had before leaving the ship in Egypt about
the beastly blankets, but I’m absolutely sure
we didn’t use £15/./. worth. I can foresee plenty
of trouble with our deferred pay when we
get back (mine must amount to about £100)
but I’ll fight like a tiger for mine as I consider
every farthing of it has been well earned.

I got two more letters from you forwarded
from Newquay[7] containing enclosures, letters
from one man re pyjamas & Ru’s. What a
clever little beggar he is, it was a beautifully
composed epistle and quite like him, I can
imagine I see him writing it. You will be
more than surprised dear when I tell you
I am second in command of “C” Coy now.
Jack Roydhouse came back and as he
is senior to me of course I had to hand
over to him, the reason of it is this. Montgomery
came back after being away from the
Battalion for 12 months or so & he is the
senior Captain by many months, B Coy Major Brown
has “D” Coy, Capt Glyde has “A” & so of
course Jack had to take “C”. He has had
none or very little experience as a Coy Commdr[8]
while I have had a Coy for over 12 months.
It was a very bitter pill to swallow but I
gulped it down, and as Col Reed[9] says “the
next stunt there will be plenty of vacancies”
so I don’t suppose it will be long before I
get a Coy again. We are having heaps of
rain here & there have been disastrous
floods in England, destroying valuable &
much needed crops. Fate seems against us,
One can’t fight in the awful Flanders mud,
already it is thigh deep, God knows what
the winter will be like, we’ll have to have
land submarines! However, the Germans are
getting hell alright. How are dear Mum & Dad
going now, I do long to see them again, perhaps
I may be back by June next year, anyway
they will send Australians back first on
account of the pay. Give my love to everyone
Ever your loving hubby,   Reg.

I still love plenty you know, in case you forgot.

 

[1] Renescure, behind the lines in France. The 28th Battalion had been there since the end of July.

[2] “Training was carried out in earnest and route marches were conducted in the request downpours, which taxed the morale of the troops. Leave was issued to St Omer, six miles distant and a cinema at the Y.M.C.A hut at Abbaye de Woestine was a welcome distraction. On August 23rd the 2nd Division was reviewed by Lt General Birdwood, on the southwest bank of the Canal de Nerf Fosse, near Campagne. On August 27th the officer commanding the 2nd Division, Major General N.M. Smyth, inspected the 28th Battalion and selected it to represent the 7th Brigade in a march past Sir Douglas Haig, at a review of the 2nd Division held two days later near the Arquesaire road. The Diggers (the term ‘Digger’ came into general use around this time) arched past with fixed bayonets, in slouch hats with heads held high.Browning, p 224

[3] 16 Essex St., Fremantle

[4] Reg’s Birthday was 2 September – the very day that I am typing this post. Reg would certainly have been surprised that his birthday would be remembered 100 years later!

[5] Digging! see 2 above.

[6] Reg’s motorcycle, ‘Jane’.

[7] Newquay was the house of Reg’s Uncle Cliff and family.

[8] Jack Roydhouse had been attached to the hq staff of 6th Brigade during the Battle of Poziers in July?August the previous year. He had returned to the 28th Battalion at the beginning of the year and was a company commander during the battle of Bullecourt where he won the MC, during Reg’s absence recovering from his wounds received at  the battle of Gueudecourt. Jack must have just returned from his own absence, suffering with trench foot (see Reg’s letter of June 1917 here).

[9] Col. Read, Lieutenant Colonel George Arthur Read DSO .

RHG – still training for Third Ypres, August 1917

Reg’s next surviving letter is to his step-mother dated August 1917:

                                    “C” Coy

France[1]                        18. 8. 17.

 

Dearest Mum,

Very many thanks dear
for the magazines & papers which you
sent, they were thoroughly enjoyed and are
still being passed round. I didn’t answer
your letter at once & a few days have
lapsed since I received them, but I have
been very busy. Have not been too well
lately, suffering with my kidneys, pains
across the small of the back, nothing
serious but just annoying. There has been
an Australian mail in, posted Fremantle
June 13th so I ought to get some letters from
home soon if Laura has sent them care of
you. Am saving money these days, shall have
£18/./. in my book at the end of this month,
must send dad that 100 francs[2], but cannot
get a registered envelope, will you post
me one across as soon as you can, then
I will send the money on, it is no use
carrying money about with one here. I was
thinking of saving up till I get about £35/.
and then getting Dad to sell my bike and
buying a stronger & more powerful machine
about 3 ½ to 4 ¼ H.P. which would stand the
wear & tear of the Australian roads better
than ‘Jane’[3] . Am glad you had a nice
time at Broadstairs[4] dearest, I should
love to see the dear old place again, if I
get another lucky crack I must take
a run down that way and visit all the
old haunts. I can imagine that Canterbury
must well nigh be ruined with all the soldiers
there, how sick I am of the sight of khaki. I
think this year will see an end to it all.

Good bye dearest to you both.

Ever your affect. son

Reg.

[1] France, The Battalion was still training behind the front lines but had moved at the end of July to Renescure, about 50 miles from Ypres.

[2]  Reg had purchased his motorbike with assistance from his father and was paying him back.

[3] ‘Jane’, Reg’s motorbike made by The James Cycle Company Ltd.

[4] Broadstairs. On the Kent coast. I believe Reg’s family had lived there at some point when Reg was small.

RHG July 1917 – training for Third Ypres

The next of Reg‘s letters from the Front to survive is a letter to his parents dated 17 July 1917. The 28th Battalion were training hard in preparation for the upcoming Passchendaele offensive which would come to be known as the Third Battle of Ypres. 

The Battalion had moved from Senlis to Bapaume, still well behind the front line, and was engaged in lengthy and strenuous training sessions with frequent route marches. Lectures were given on gas, bombing, communications, signalling and tactics. reinforcements arrived and were absorbed into the companies. (Browning, p 220).

Reg was back as company commander of C company. During this month, “No.10 Platoon (C Company) under the command of Lieut. L.G. Allen, with the extremely capable Sergeant G.F. Kennedy as his platoon sergeant, was specially trained to such a level that it was reputed to be the best platoon in the 2nd Division. Allen’s platoon was called upon to give a demonstration of its ability before an assembly of British and Australian officers”. (Browning, p. 223.

                                    “C” Coy

                                          17.7. 17.

Dearest Dad & Mum,

Received your letter for which very
many thanks, it is awfully generous of you to
make me such an offer re the bike, I will send
you the money as soon as possible. Captain Pugh[1]
my second in command went home on leave on
Sunday and said he will bring back any parcel
for me, so will you ask Mum if she will pack my
small V.P. Kodak and my tennis shoes[2] up and
forward them to me care of Captain C.H. Pugh
4. Cleveland Park Avenue. Walthamstowe. Essex. Eng.
also some “Kolners” tooth paste, he, he will have 10 days
in England, so if you could post immediately on receipt
of this he ought to get them in time. What an extraordinary
thing the back tyre bursting like that, as far as I remember
I mended the last puncture, which occurred in Salisbury,
I picked up a horseshoe nail and I certainly remember
examining the [cover?] carefully. I am very glad to think
you are riding her, it will do her good, better than the
engine standing idle in a fixed position for a long
time.

Very glad to hear Dick is progressing favourably
and will be out of it for a time at least, the
climate must be rotten out there for wounds to heal
properly, wish he could come home for a spell, that
business ought to soon be finished.[3]

Haven’t heard from Theo for along time, hope he is
O.K.[4] I’m glad you liked Vera,[5] wish I had seen her
while I was at home, perhaps I will be able to next
time I get to Blighty. I can imagine how you felt
about [Mr?] Pain, fancy Mrs. leaving him all alone, but
he ought to get away himself for a spell. We are having
a lot of war weather out here, mud is thick as usual,
I often wonder if France is always like this, one doesn’t
seem to get so much mud in England. Must send this
up now, I have a tremendous lot of work on hand.
Dearest love to you both.

Your affectionate son

Reg.

 

[1] Captain Cyril Hunwick Pugh, 28th Battalion, AIF from Perth, Western Australia. A 23 year old clerk when he enlisted on 8 September 1914, he embarked for overseas as a 2nd Lt with A Company from Fremantle on 29 June 1915 aboard HMAT Ascanius. He served at Gallipoli where he was promoted to Lt on 1 December 1915 and on the Western Front where he was promoted to Capt on 12 March 1917. Capt Pugh returned to Australia on 1 June 1919.

[2] tennis shoes – During this period, the Battalion were also engaged in sports against other battalions in the 7th Brigade , with cricket and tennis.(Browning, p223)

[3]’Dick’, AR Gill – Reg’s younger half brother was attached to 1/2 Kings African Rifles (seconded from the Hampshire Regiment) and had been wounded in April 1917 at Yangwani.

[4] ‘Theo’, GT Gill – serving with the 2/6 Gurkha Rifles in Mesopotamia in 1916 and then as an instructor at the Young Officers’ School at Sabathu in the Simla Hills 

[5] ‘Vera’ – Annie Vera Chapman served in the war as a V.A.D. nurse at Bevan Hospital, Sandgate, Kent. Vera married Reg’s brother Theo (GTG) in St.Thomas’s Cathedral, Bombay on 30 December 1918.

Vera’s brother Lieutenant Lawrence Vaughan Champman was serving with the 2nd Rifle Brigade. He was killed, aged 28, on 25 September 1915 in a bomb explosion holding a captured trench for four hours in spite of counter attacks. Before the war Lawrence had been a solicitor. He had been a prizeman, medalist and exhibitioner at King’s College London University. He is commemorated on the Ploegsteert memorial, King’s College Chapel, Sunbury-on-Thames War Memorial and at St. Mary the Virgin, Sunbury-on-Thames.

“Chapman, Lieutenant Lawrence Vaughan B.A., LLB, of the 2nd Rifle Brigade, killed in Flanders was a son of Mr. L. Chapman, of Sunbury-on-Thames, and grandson of the late Rev. I. M. Chapman M.A., Fellow of Balliol and rector of Tendring, Essex. He was educated at King’s College School and the University of London; of the latter he was a prizeman, medallist and exhibitioner, taking his degree in both arts and law with honours. After serving his articles he passed the solicitors articles with honours and was appointed by Sir H. Holden a member of the legal staff of the City and Midland Bank. He was gazetted from the Reserve of Officers to the Rifle Brigade on May 5, 1914, and left for the front on May 13, 1915. He was promoted lieutenant in July last.” The Times 4 October 1915 (source: Kings College Memorial List)

 

 

 

 

 

‘Jane’ – “the Famous James” motorcycle

It was during Reg‘s period of convalescence in England, sometime during his time at the 3rd London General Hospital, convalescence at No. I Command Depot and training at Rollestone Camp that Reg purchased ‘Jane’ his motorbike. His letters home to his wife Laura, and his parents, upon his return to the Front talk a lot about ‘Jane’ and there are photos in his file at the IWM of him posing on ‘Jane’, probably taken at Rollestone Camp:

Reginald Gill

I believe this is a  motorcycle made by The James Cycle Company Ltd known as “the Famous James”.

Screen Shot 2017-09-01 at 18.51.03

More on the history of James Motorcycles here and below.

Reg’s letters in May and June 1917 often talk about ‘Jane’ and how much Reg enjoyed her. In his letter home to his wife Laura in June 1917, Reg mentions:

“Hope you got my photos safely and you liked them, had them taken in Bournemouth one Saturday afternoon, I used to go in there on ‘Jane’ sometimes, it is only 44 miles from Rollestone & I could get down in 2 hours, Jane took me 1500 miles while I was at home, so I got about quite a bit, + cheaply at that, I couldn’t possibly have done so without her, I have only £17/13/3 to pay now and I am sending Dad money [out?] whenever I have a few francs to spare, so will soon have her paid for, I hope.”

And to his parents in July 1917:

What an extraordinary thing the back tyre bursting like that, as far as I remember
I mended the last puncture, which occurred in Salisbury, I picked up a horseshoe nail and I certainly remember examining the [cover?] carefully. I am very glad to think you are riding her, it will do her good, better than the engine standing idle in a fixed position for a long time.

 

By Jove wouldn’t I love to have a ride on dear old Jane once more, I know she is in the best of hands however. If anything happens to me I want Dick to have her, so please give her to him with my love.

Dick was Reg’s half-brother, A.R.Gill – who was serving in the 1/2 Kings African Rifles in East Africa at the time.

But then in August and September the tone of Reg’s letters changes. He now seems  preoccupied with a decision to sell Jane and buy a more powerful motorbike:

I was thinking of saving up till I get about £35/. and then getting Dad to sell my bike and buying a stronger & more powerful machine about 3 ½ to 4 ¼ H.P. which would stand the wear & tear of the Australian roads better than ‘Jane’. Am glad you had a nice time at Broadstairs dearest, I should love to see the dear old place again, if I get another lucky crack I must take a run down that way and visit all the old haunts. I can imagine that Canterbury must well nigh be ruined with all the soldiers there, how sick I am of the sight of khaki. I think this year will see an end to it all.

 

I have definitely decided to purchase a  James 4 ¼ H.P. motor bike and sell dear old  ‘Jane’. I wonder if dad could manage to arrange the sale for me, I should like if possible to get £30/./. for her (minus the speedometer) as I really think she is worth that amount.

I am saving up & already have about £30/./. in my pay book! Strange to say. If Dad could manage to get £30/./., & my £30 added (the bike costs £69/10/.) I should soon be able to buy one, and he could ride it about for me until I could get home, they are magnificent machines. Will you ask him to write me on the subject. I enclose a letter I received from the James people.

 

The new bicycle I’m thinking of getting is a 4 ¼ H.P. model capable of taking a side car, so I could take you out. I wonder if you would go with me.

 

Screen Shot 2017-09-01 at 18.50.44

JAMES 1914 MODEL 6 598CC 1 CYL SV 2703 (source: Yesterdays.nl)

8b3b91d95aada3b9d2ec02f52bc78d0f

1913 ‘James No. 6’ 3 ½ HP 588cc

This is a photo of a  “4½ hp (86×103) equipped with full chain drive and 3 speed James gearbox. A new feature for the 1915 model 4½ hp was the gear change lever that was positioned through a slot in the petrol tank instead of at the side of the tank”:

James 41/2 hp

And here is a 1918 James with 6600cc

1915 James 600cc 4¼ HP side car:

35300060_1_x35300060_2_x

Above:
“1915 James 600cc 4 ¼ HP side car
Single cylinder side valve
Engine No. J57786
Frame No. 65365
Founded in 1883, The James Cycle Company Ltd became a highly-successful manufacturer of penny-farthings in Birmingham, UK. It initially marketed strongly to the female market, one of the advertising slogans declaring, “Remember – All bicycles are not alike” becoming one of the countless West Midlands bicycle manufacturers to enter the burgeoning motorcycle market.
“The Famous James” renowned for distinction in design and dependability in service and reputed as an affordable commuter vehicle began building motorized bicycles in 1902 and by 1910, complete motorcycles went into production.
At the outbreak of war in 1914, most of West Midlands’ motorcycle manufacturers supported the war effort by turning over their production to the army. James supplied pedal-cycles to the British military as well as supplying 4-stroke v-twin motorcycles to the Belgian and Russian armies.
This 600cc 4 ¼ HP, built in 1914 for 1915 release, is equipped with full chain drive and a three speed James gear box with the gear change lever distinctively positioned through a slot in the petrol tank. This sensitively restored example retains original fittings including handle bars, levers, lamps, cables, foot pedals still clearly bearing the James inscription and original tinware housing the fully enclosed rear chain and primary chain. Rear phosphor bronze expanding band brake-lining is original still requiring oiling as per the manual instructions, with spring drive in the rear hub…..
Finished in brown, gold and red, sporting original James decals, acetylene lights, leather tool panniers and superb alloy appointments this is a well preserved veteran side valve single with period side car.” (Source: Mossgreen Auctions)

It appears that Reg had grown up with various motorcycles and cars in which his father had a keen interest. I believe that Reg’s father (GH Gill) and Reg’s uncle (A.A. Gill, ‘Uncle Bertie”) were some of the first members of the Automobile Association and purchased the first two Vauxhall motor cars to be produced but I have no evidence of this.

Reg as a boy on a Rudge Whitworth bicycle

Clyde car 2 cylinder, White & Poppe engine - EG and friend unknown

Clyde car 2 cylinder, White & Poppe engine – EG and friend unknown

Ford Model T - No 2 - GHG & EG

Ford Model T – No 2 – GHG & EG

Victoria 4 cylinder car. made by Victoria Motor Works, Godalming 1908. Driver and Passenger unknown

Victoria 4 cylinder car. made by Victoria Motor Works, Godalming 1908. Driver and Passenger unknown

Vauxhall 5 HP, AA Gill's car

Vauxhall 5 HP, AA Gill’s car – “Uncle Bertie but I don’t recognise his passenger as his wife Aunt Josephine”

Ormonde motorbike and forecarriage - GHG & ARG

Ormonde motorbike and forecarriage – GHG & ARG

Ormonde motorbike and forecarriage - AAG & son, David

Ormonde motorbike and forecarriage – AAG & son, David

Hupmobile 1913 - passengers unknown

Hupmobile 1913 – passengers unknown

Ormonde motorbike and forecarriage - GHG & ARG

Ormonde motorbike and forecarriage – GHG & son, ARG

Ford 1908 Model T - GHG & EG

Ford 1908 Model T – GHG & EG

Victoria 1908 - GHG & ARG

Victoria 1908 – GHG & ARG

GTG

Reg’s brother Theo (GTG) in India 1914

 

Letter to Mum & Dad – 15 July 1917 (or June?)

The next surviving letter of Reg‘s is to his father and step-mother dated 15 July 1917. But the content so closely matches his letter to his wife Laura dated 15 June, and mentions that he only just left them ‘last Wednesday’, that I have to assume this is incorrectly dated and must have been written on 15 June 1917, the same day as the letter to Laura.

                                             France.

                                                 15. 7. 17.

 

Dearest Mum & Dad.

Just a line to let you know I am still alright, will give you a short history of happenings since I left you last Wednesday afternoon. When I got to Waterloo I at once enquired after my valise, only to find it had not arrived and was no where to be found. I went to the Station Master and kicked up a deuce of a row about it and he came to the conclusion that it could not have been sent from Amesbury Station[1] because it had not been prepaid on! So he telegraphed and told them to forward it at once. Then I went to the Automobile Club[2] and booked a bed and on to Victoria to catch the 8 o’clock train to Bromley, arrived at the house about 10 to 9 and had some dinner and caught a train back to town at
10.0pm & went on to Waterloo but could get no satisfaction
from them about my gear, so went back to the Club and to
bed & was waked up at 2.0 am with information that
my valise had arrived at Waterloo, so I made arrangements to have it sent round at 6.0 am. Caught the 7.50 am at Victoria and saw the Newquay family waving in the field at Shortlands[4] as the train went by. The boat did not sail until 3.0 pm so one or two others & myself went for a swim & had some lunch and then went on board. Got to Boulogne safely & was told by the R.T.O. that our train did not leave until 10.30 am next day (Friday) so we had to put in the night there & next day caught the train. She stopped at Etaples[4] and did not go on any further until Saturday ay 7.30 am so had to stop the night again at our own expense. Eventually arrived at Albert and walked out to the Battalion where I got a pipping welcome from every one. We are going forward now, so will write you again shortly. We get paid in a few days and I will send some money home
for Jane[5], will try & get some registered envelopes. It is very hot indeed out here and is very trying, it doesn’t improve the smells at all, as you can imagine. I can just picture the dear old garden at home, only wish I could see it
again. Everyone is very hopeful that the war will be over by September or October and we have every reason to think so, I cannot say any more about that however, but it is what we call in Australia the “Dinkum Oil”[6].
I wrote a line to Newquay. Will you forward any
letters or parcels to me at the same address. I have
got my old Company back again thank goodness, but
alas there are very few of the old faces left. By Jove
wouldn’t I love to have a ride on dear old Jane once more,
I know she is in the best of hands however. If anything
happens to me I want Dick[7] to have her, so please give her
to him with my love. I am awfully well & quite happy here
this time.

Good bye to you both.

Ever your affectionate son.

Reg

 

[1] Amsbury, Wiltshire, near Stonehenge. The station, which served the military camps on Salisbury Plain during WWI, including Rollestone, closed in 1963

[2] Royal Automobile Club – see previous post

[3] The family of G.C. Bower – ‘Uncle Cliff’ living in Shortlands, Bromley – the railway passes a few streets from Durham Avenue just after Shortlands railway station. See previous post.

[4] Étaples or Étaples-sur-Mer

[5] ‘Jane’, Reg’s motor cycle

[6] Australian slang for the real truth or hard information.

[7] ‘Dick” was Reg’s half-brother A.R.Gill – serving in the 1/2 Kings African Rifles in East Africa at the time.

 

The Bower family

The details given on Reg’s records at the Australian War Memorial for contact address for any further information for the Historian, presumably given by Reg’s wife Laura after the war, are “George H Gill, Esq. c/o Newquay, Durham Ave, Bromley, Kent, England”. This was not the home address for Reg’s father G.H.Gill.

G.H.Gill had moved since Reg was a boy, firstly to The Copse, in Witley, Surrey and then, just before WWI, to the Malt House, Lurgashall in West Sussex, where Reg’s visited while on leave from the Western Front.

I have discovered that Newquay, Durham Avenue in Bromley was in fact the address of George Clifford Bower, Reg’s ‘Uncle Cliff” on his mother’s side of the family.

Reg’s mother Agnes Ellen Gill (nee Bower) tragically died in childbirth with Reggie in September 1883. Reg is recorded as being born in Putney. His elder brother, Theo, was also recorded as being born in Putney two years previously in 1881 and Theo’s photo album shows the following house of his grandparents Mr and Mrs Theodore Bower ‘the house in which I was born’. It is likely that Reg was also born in the same house.

Meadowcroft, Upper Richmond Road, Putney

GTG photo album - p.45Although Reg and Theo’s father remarried a year later in 1884, to Mary Agnes (nee Kingsnorth), Mary tragically died of Hodgkins disease less than eight years later in 1892, leaving Theo and Reggie motherless again, aged just 11 and 9. GH Gill remarried for a third time in 1893 to Eleanor Pritchard (nee Cook) who had been the specialist nurse of his late wife Mary during her illness. GHG’s third son, Albert Richard Gill, was born in 1894. However, despite the tragic loss of Reg’s mother, it seems from Reg’s letters home from the front (here and here) that Theo and Reg remained very close to their mother’s extended family.  I discovered a photo montage of the extended Bower family which seems to have been made from separate photos taken of the family members in around 1900-1903:

The family of Theodore Bower, Esq.

Written on the back of the photograph:

“Back Row L-R: Jack Richardson, Theodore Bower, Theodore Gill, Reginald Gill, Herbert Richardson, Mrs G.C.Bower, G.C. Bower, T.H.Bower, G.H.Gill, Violet Bower, Geoffrey Richardson.

Middle Row L-R: Marjorie Bower, Alfred Bower, Mrs Herbert Richardson (‘Aunt Edith’), Daphne Bower, Theodore Bower, Margaret Bower, Mrs. Theodore Bower, Mrs. T.H. Bower, Bernard Richardson.

Front Row L-R:  Phillip Richardson, Gerard Bower, Cyril Bower

Of those mentioned in Reg’s letters:

George Clifford Bower, stockbroker, and his wife Emily Maud (nee Earnshaw) – ‘Uncle Cliff’ and ‘Aunty Maud’ in Reg’s letters – lived at ‘Newquay’, Durham Avenue, Bromley. Their children were:

Violet Bower – not mentioned in Reg’s letters. Violet married Francis John Fane in October 1915 and so presumably had left home by the time of Reg’s visit in June/July 1916.

Capt. Theodore Clifford Bower MC – mentioned in Reg’s letters in his visits to Bromley as ‘Theo‘.

Theodore H BowerAt the time of Reg’s first visit on leave in 1915, Theo was a Lieutenant in the 2nd battalion the Honourable Artillery Regiment (2 HAC). The HAC was (and still is) a territorial regiment in the City of London and many city professionals served both in the ranks and as officers. Theo was a private in 1912 and was promoted to Second Lieutenant just before the outbreak of war in August 1914, to Lieutenant in May 1915 and to Temporary Captain in January 1916 and Captain in April 1917 and Acting Major while second in command in July 1918.

The Prince of Wales (Capt TC Bower commanding the honour guard of the HAC) at the Guildhall – Oct 1922

I understand that Theo had been hospitalised in France in December 1914 with frostbite and returned to England but rejoined his regiment at the front again in 1915. Theo was awarded the MC in 1917, presumably for the period of the 2 HAC in Bullecourt in May –  reported in the London Gazette 17 July 1917:  “before the attack he carried out a daring reconnaissance in daylight and brought back most valuable information. Later he led his company with great gallantry setting a fine example throughout.” He

 

 

 

Margaret Bower – mentioned in Reg’s letters as ‘Margy and her husband‘, who was John M Nussey

Alfred George Bower – mentioned in Reg’s letters as ‘Baish‘ or ‘Baishe

Baish Bower

Baishe was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 4th (City of London) Battalion, The London Regiment (Royal Fusiliers) in May 1915 before transferring to the 1st Battalion on 27 July 1915. Later in the war he was a temporary captain.

After the war Baishe became a stockbroker like his father. He played football as an amateur for the Old Carthusians (the old boy team for Charterhouse School, where he and his brothers had been to school).

 

Baishe also played for the famous Corinthians and made nine appearances for Chelsea in the 1st and 2nd Division between 1923 – 1926. He won five full caps for England between 1923 and 1927 as an amateur at a time when it was becoming increasingly rare for an amateur to play for the full international team. Baishe went on to captain England for 2 victories, against Belgium and Wales, also a draw against Wales in which he was the last amateur footballer to captain England.

Daphne Bower – born in 1901, and mentioned often in Reg’s letters with ‘Uncle Cliff’ and ‘Aunty Maud’. She would have been 15 years old at the time of Reg’s visits on leave from the Western Front.

Theodore Herbert Bower, the other brother of Reg’s mother, and his wife Mary Whichelo (nee Rowe) – known as ‘Uncle Bert‘ and ‘Aunty Minnie‘ in Reg’s letters. Their children were:

Cyril Whichelo Bower – not mentioned in Reg’s letters presumably because he was on active service. Captain C W Bower DSC RN. He passed out from the training cruiser HMS Cumberland as midshipman in December 1910. Then  to HMS Hibernia (January – December 1911) and HMS Orion (January 1912 – February 1913), When the War broke out he was a sub-lieutenant of the destroyer HMS Laforey, 3rd Destroyer Flotilla, Harwich Force until September 1915. and then to the 5th Destroyer Flotilla, Eastern Mediterranean Squadron for the final stages of the Gallipoli campaign (October 1915 – January 1916). In March 1916, he was appointed first lieutenant of the HMS Harpy (also 5th Destroyer Flotilla) on patrol duties off the Dardanelles (May 1916) and in December 1917, on the new destroyer HMS Michael. Cyril was awarded the DSC in September 1918, for service in action against enemy submarines. In 1923-25 he served in the HMS Hawkins, flagship in China, and in 1928-30 as first lieutenant-commander of the HMS Despatch, flagship on the America and West Indies Station. He was then executive officer of HMS Champion, gunnery and torpedo school cruiser, at Portsmouth. And finally Cyril was appointed Captain-Superintendent of the Arethusa Training Ship in 1932. He died in 1973.

Gerard Rimington Bower  – not mentioned in Reg’s letters – He was serving as 2nd Lieut. with the 1/22nd London Regiment 1st Bn Royal West Surrey. Actually Gerard was killed in action on 15th July 1916 – the day after Reg’s letter home describing his visit to the Bowers. Gerard went to Tonbridge School leaving at  Easter, 1914. Three weeks after the outbreak of war he received a commission, dated August 24th, 1914, in the 2/22nd (County of London) Battalion London Regiment (The Queen’s) (Territorial Force), and in the spring of 1915 he went to France with his Battalion and was promoted Temporary Lieutenant, on 27th May 1915. After being in the trenches for five weeks he returned from the Front, as he had been given a nomination for Sandhurst. Passing out of Sandhurst at the end of 1915, Gerard was gazetted to The Queen’s (Royal West Surrey Regt.) as 2nd Lieut., December 22nd, 1915, and returned to the Front on 20 May 1916. He was killed in action on 15th July 1916, whilst leading his men in an attack in the Battle of the Somme, shot through the head right on top of the German wire, which at that point had escaped destruction during the preparatory bombardment. His C.O. wrote of him “He had only been a short time with us, but he gave every promise of a successful career and I much deplore his loss. He died in a gallant manner at the head of his platoon.” Various officers have testified that he was “an excellent officer and one of the smartest subalterns in the Battalion,” and the following are extracts from some of their letters: “His platoon was among the first to go over, and I hear he led the men splendidly, that it was a fine sight to see them all in line following him. He led them forward right in the face of a heavy rifle and machine-gun fire, with another machine-gun catching them in rear from a certain wood. He showed great bravery and a fine example.” “He was so high-spirited and such a good officer, almost the ideal type, and we were all so fond of him.” “He had that devotion to duty and that love of, and care for, his men which is the hall-mark of the English officer.”

Godfrey Bower  – not mentioned in Reg’s letters and I cannot find information for him.

Unfortunately, I cannot find any information on the Richardson family.